It is possible to find out using mathematical methods whether a given integer is a prime number or not.
Yes, 140 019 907 is a prime number.
Indeed, the definition of a prime numbers is to have exactly two distinct positive divisors, 1 and itself. A number is a divisor of another number when the remainder of Euclid’s division of the second one by the first one is zero. Concerning the number 140 019 907, the only two divisors are 1 and 140 019 907. Therefore 140 019 907 is a prime number.
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Since 140019907 is a prime number, 140019907 is also a deficient number, that is to say 140019907 is a natural integer that is strictly larger than the sum of its proper divisors, i.e., the divisors of 140019907 without 140019907 itself (that is 1, by definition!).