It is possible to find out using mathematical methods whether a given integer is a prime number or not.
Yes, 144 240 059 is a prime number.
Indeed, the definition of a prime numbers is to have exactly two distinct positive divisors, 1 and itself. A number is a divisor of another number when the remainder of Euclid’s division of the second one by the first one is zero. Concerning the number 144 240 059, the only two divisors are 1 and 144 240 059. Therefore 144 240 059 is a prime number.
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Since 144240059 is a prime number, 144240059 is also a deficient number, that is to say 144240059 is a natural integer that is strictly larger than the sum of its proper divisors, i.e., the divisors of 144240059 without 144240059 itself (that is 1, by definition!).