It is possible to find out using mathematical methods whether a given integer is a prime number or not.
Yes, 551 028 649 is a prime number.
Indeed, the definition of a prime numbers is to have exactly two distinct positive divisors, 1 and itself. A number is a divisor of another number when the remainder of Euclid’s division of the second one by the first one is zero. Concerning the number 551 028 649, the only two divisors are 1 and 551 028 649. Therefore 551 028 649 is a prime number.
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Since 551028649 is a prime number, 551028649 is also a deficient number, that is to say 551028649 is a natural integer that is strictly larger than the sum of its proper divisors, i.e., the divisors of 551028649 without 551028649 itself (that is 1, by definition!).